In this project, we are studying the synthesis folding of membrane proteins in the cell. Using the sensitivity of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy directly in E. coli, we are identifying the genetic vs. protein discriminators against eukaryotic membrane protein expression in prokaryotic systems.  The end goal of this project is to develop an optimization algorithm that will allow any scientist to take a poorly expressing mammalian membrane protein in E. coli, and increase expression to yields that will allow for structure determination by cryo-EM. 

This research is currently supported by NIH R21 GM126476.